Answer all questions in full, self-explanatory sentences. Heading, ‘The Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria’.
- Re Tsaribrod, &c, why did Britain & France give Yugoslavia parts of western Bulgaria?
- Why did the Americans oppose giving Yugoslavia parts of western Bulgaria?
- Why did Britain and France restore Southern Dobrudja to Romania?
- Why did the Americans oppose restoring Southern Dobrudja to Romania?
- How did the Americans argue against giving Western Thrace to Greece?
- Why did Britain and France give Western Thrace to Greece?
- Why did the Bulgarians think that the treaty made them militarily weak?
- What was the Bulgarian objection to reparations?
- Why, given their doubts, did the United States sign the Treaty of Neuilly?
- What was the popular response in
- Extension question. Read ‘Aftermath’, pages 5-12. How can it be argued that the Treaty of Neuilly was a failure?
Leeper and Romania
Answer all qs. in full, self-explanatory sentences. Heading, ‘The settlement with Romania’.
- Why did Romanians feel they had a right to receive territory?
- Why (page 3) did the Allies (the ‘peacemakers’) give Southern Dobrudja to Romania?
- Why did the Allies give Transylvania to Romania?
- Why did the Allies give Bessarabia to Romania?
- Why did the Allies give Bukovina to Romania?
- How and why was the Banat divided (a quick look back to page 2 might help here)?
- What is the meaning of ‘Fledgling leap’?
- How, from August 1919, did Romania’s conduct in Hungary cause tension between Romania and the Allies (‘The spoils of victory’)?
- The Romanians withdrew from Budapest in November and signed the modified Minorities Treaty in December 1919. Why was there still tension between Romania and the Allies (until March 1920)?
- Pages 11-13. How were Lloyd George’s doubts about Trianon (the treaty with Hungary) resolved?
- How was the Bessarabian question resolved?
1. Review the territorial changes and go online to find the territories. Make a rough map to show how the peace settlement expanded Romania.
2. Read ‘After Trianon’ (elsewhere on the website). How can it be argued that the Romanian settlement was a failure?
Answer all questions in full, self-explanatory sentences. Heading, ‘Yugoslavia’.
- If the peacemakers in Paris did not create Yugoslavia, what did they try to do?
- What did the British and Americans want to do with Trieste, Gorizia and western Istria?
- What did the British and American experts want to do with Fiume and Dalmatia?
- How (page 3) did the dispute over Fiume burst into public view in April 1919 and provoke an Italian walkout?
- How did Gabriele d’Annunzio’s seizure of Fiume make a settlement more difficult?
- What caused the failure of Lloyd George’s January 1920 attempt to settle the Adriatic question? (Wilson’s response.)
- Go forward to ‘Defeat’ on page 11. Why is the Treaty of Rapallo seen as a defeat for Yugoslavia?
- How did Mussolini complete the defeat of Yugoslavia?
- Read The North, pages 7-11. Produce a one-paragraph summary (max. 150 words) to describe Yugoslavia’s mixed success in the north.
- Read pp. 10-13 of ‘Leeper and Yugoslavia’ (elsewhere in the website) for an in-depth treatment of the Lloyd George-inspired January Compromise of January 1920.
Answer all questions in full, self-explanatory sentences. Heading, ‘Montenegro’.
- How did Montenegro lose its independence in November-December 1918?
- Why did Italy oppose Serbia’s acquisition of Montenegro?
- What did ‘the empty chair’ mean in practice?
- See ‘What Montenegrins wanted’ on pages 5-6. What did the peacemakers in Paris believe was the wish of most Montenegrins?
- Why should the Salis report (pages 6-7) of August 1919 be seen as a flawed exercise?
- How was Montenegro ‘a mere pawn in a bigger game’ (page 9)?
- Why was the fate of Montenegro ‘not Britain’s finest hour’ (page 10)?
Answer all questions in full, self-explanatory sentences. Heading, ‘Albania’.
- What did the Treaty of London promise Italy in relation to Albania?
- What did Serbia and Greece want in Albania?
- Albania as pawn: why did Britain want to give Italy the port of Valona and ‘a protectorate over central Albania’ (page 2)?
- Why (2-3) was the future of Koritsa the main stumbling block in the way of a settlement?
- How, on 5 June 1919 (page 8) and 9 February 1920 (page 11) did Prime Minister Turkhan Pasha and Britain’s James Headlam-Morley criticise the Peace Conference’s approach to the Albanian question? (Do not produce two separate answers; combine them.)
- Allen Leeper wrote that “if you could only persuade the claimants [Greece, Serbia and Italy] that their rivals wanted nothing, they would all be prepared to clear out” (page 12). Read ‘The eagle ascends’ (pp. 11-14), including the last paragraph’s ‘nobody wanted Albania as much as the Albanians’ (14), and then write a one-paragraph explanation (max. 150 words) of Albania’s success in achieving national independence.
Sèvres (or Catastrophe at Smyrna)
Answer all questions in full, self-explanatory sentences. Heading, ‘The Treaty of Sèvres’.
- What was the British attitude towards (a) Greece and (b) Venizelos?
- How did the Adriatic question help to persuade Wilson to support Lloyd George in pushing the Greeks into Smyrna in May 1919?
- What, in the end, was ‘the most important result of the Greek occupation of Smyrna’?
- What was agreed at the London Conference of February 1920 (and confirmed at Sèvres on 10 August 1920) with regard to (a) Smyrna, and (b) other territories?
- How (in a nutshell) did the Smyrna decision seem to many observers (Robeck, Churchill, Curzon, Sir Henry Wilson) to court disaster? Pick out the main idea they had in common.
- Write out and complete this sentence: ‘The Greeks fought successfully against the Turks in July 1920 and March-August 1921; however, the Turks counterattacked in August 1922 and …’
- What happened in Smyrna?
- What was the final outcome in terms of (a) population movements, and (b) territory?
Note that the above does not include the changes that Sèvres made in the Middle East.